Description:   Acinetobacter baumannii and other  members of this genus are typically found in soil and water, and can survive on human skin and on medical equipment. They can cause pneumonia, urinary   tract infections and serious blood or wound infections.    

Notes:  A. baumannii has been noted for its apparent ability to survive on artificial surfaces for an extended period of time, therefore allowing it to persist in the hospital environment. Infection found US troops in Middle East causing Pneumonia, Bloodstreem infections, Meningitis, surgical infections, urinary tract infections.


Threats  According to CDC and NIH:  Potential Multidrug-resistant  Acinetobacter.   



 Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.  It causes a disease called “black mold” on certain fruits and vegetables such as grapes, apricots, onions, and peanuts, and is a common contaminant of food. It is ubiquitous in soil and is commonly reported from indoor environments, where its black colonies can be confused with those of Stachybotrys (species of which have also been called “black mold”) 


Notes:  Aspergillus niger isn’t as notoriously dangerous as Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen.  However, Aspergillus niger contains toxins that can make people with weak immune systems become very sick and can sometimes result in death.  These toxins can be inhaled by humans, most commonly people who work around plants or peat, and can cause a lung disease called Aspergillosis.

Threats According to CDC and NIH: Aspergillus  niger (Black Mold)    



Description:  Bacillus Subtilis, known also as the hay   bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil  and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans. 

Notes:  B.subtilis is used as a model organism for studying the formation of endospores in bacteria  and evaluating the effectiveness of sporicides and sterilants.   Endospores of B. subtilis can withstand harsh environmental conditions, such as  high temperatures and UV exposure. B.subtilis is non-pathogenic, yet can contaminate food and is considered an opportunistic pathogen in those who are immuno-compromised. B.subtilis are used on seeds, vegetables, and plants as a fungicide because of their ability to produce antibiotics.     B.subtilis is capable of secreting polymyxin, difficidin, subtilin, and mycobacillin. The antibiotics are released during sporulation to raise the microorganism’s chance of survival and to eliminate competing microbes. 



Description:  Bacteroides fragilis is an obligately   anaerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. 

Notes: It is part of the normal   microbiota of the human colonand is generally commensal,[but   can cause infection if displaced into the bloodstream or surrounding tissue  following surgery, disease, or trauma.



Description:  Burkholderia cepacia, is a group of catalase-producing, lactose-nonfermenting,  Gram-negative bacteria composed of at least 20 different species, including B. cepacia, B. multivorans, B. cenocepacia, B. vietnamiensis,   B. stabilis, B. ambifaria, B. dolosa, B. anthina, B. pyrrocinia and B.   ubonensis.    

Notes:  Person-to-person spread has been documented; as a result, many hospitals, clinics, and camps have enacted strict isolation precautions for those infected with BCC. Infected individuals are often treated in a separate area from uninfected patients to limit spread, since BCC infection can lead to a rapid decline in lung function and result in death.



Description:  Candida  albicans is an  opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the   human gut flora. 

Notes:  Candida is   a fungus, not a bacterium. The CDC included it on its list because strains of  the fungus are increasingly showing resistance to the drugs commonly used to   treat it. Candida is present in many people without doing harm, but  it can cause serious infections in patients with weakened immune systems or  if introduced into the bloodstream.    

Threats  According to CDC and NIH: Fluconazole-resistant Candida



Description:  Klebsiella is a type of Gram-negative bacteria that can cause different   types of healthcare-associated infections, including pneumonia, bloodstream  infections, wound or surgical site infections, and meningitis    

Notes:  CRE, which stands for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, are a family of germs that are difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics. Klebsiella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are examples of Enterobacteriaceae, a normal part of the human gut bacteria, that can become carbapenem-resistant. Types of CRE are sometimes known as KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) and NDM (New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase). KPC and NDM are enzymes that break down carbapenems and make them ineffective. Both of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme VIM (Verona Integron-Mediated Metallo-β-lactamase) have also been reported in Pseudomonas. 

Threats  According to CDC and NIH: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)



Description:   Clostridium  difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming obligate   anaerobe and a major nosocomial pathogen of world-wide concern.

Notes:  Antibiotic treatment of C. diff infections may be difficult, due both to antibiotic resistance and physiological factors of the bacterium (spore formation, protective effects of the pseudomembrane).  Prolonged use of antibiotics can allow this common intestinal inhabitant to explode into a lethal infection as the drugs kill off its beneficial rivals in the human gut. Spread via hospital surfaces and human contact, C. difficile most often affects the elderly. It causes severe diarrhea and can damage the colon, and it has become very difficult to treat.

Threats  According to CDC and NIH: Clostridium  difficile



Description:    Enterobacter aerogenes, also known   as Klebsiella aerogenes,   is a Gram-negative, oxidase negative, catalase positive, citrate positive,   indole negative, rod-shaped bacterium. The bacterium is approximately 1-3  microns in length, and is capable of motility via peritrichous flagella.    

Notes:   Enterobacter aerognes (a.ka. K. aerogenes) is a nosocomial and pathogenic  bacterium that causes opportunistic infections including most   types of infections. The majority are sensitive to most antibiotics designed   for this bacteria class, but this is complicated by their inducible   resistance mechanisms, particularly lactamase, which means that they  quickly become resistant to standard antibiotics during treatment, requiring   a change in antibiotic to avoid worsening of the sepsis.      

Threats  According to CDC and NIH:  Enterobacter   aerognes a.k.a. Klebsiella aerogenes   



Description:  Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a virus of the   genus Enterovirus in   the Picornaviridae family notable for its role in causing epidics   of severe neurological disease and hand, foot, and mouth disease in  children. 

Notes:   Enterovirus 71 infrequently   causes polio-like syndrome permanent paralysis.    

Threats  According to CDC and NIH: Enterovirus  71 (Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease Virus)    


ESCHERICHIA COLI ATCC 8099, ATCC 10536, ATCC 11229, ATCC 8739, K12 NCTC 10538

Description:  Escherichia coli, also known as E. coli is a Gram-negative,   facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found  in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).     

Notes:  Certain   strains of E. coli are part of  a classification of bacterial called Extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae   (ESBLs). These  bacteria, including strains of Escherichia  coli and Klebsiella   pneumoniae, produce an enzyme that destroys many   antibiotics. They most often manifest as urinary tract infections, but can   also cause serious bloodstream and lung infections. They are spread through   improperly washed hands, surfaces and medical equipment. Some of the   ESBL E. coli strains are also foodborne.

Threats  According to CDC and NIH: Potential Extended spectrum   β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLs)   



Description:   Eupenicillium levitum (Penicillium levitum) is an anamorph species of the genus   of Penicillium. Clasification: Fungi, Dikarya, Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, Eurotiomycetes,   Eurotiomycetidae, Eurotiales, Aspergillaceae, Penicillium.



Description:  Enterobacter gergoviae is   a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped,   non-spore-forming bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.  

Notes:   Enterobacter gergoviae is   rarely isolated in clinical laboratories and it is generally susceptible to   antibiotics however, some cosmetic laboratories were concerned about the  contamination of their different cosmetic formulations, containing a   combination of parabens as preservatives, by E.   gergoviae.  



Description: Enterococcus faecalis, formerly  classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system, is a   Gram-positive commensal bacterium inhabiting   the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals.

Notes:   Enterococcus faecalis is found in healthy humans, but can cause life-threatening infections, especially in   the nosocomial (hospital) environment, where the naturally high  levels of antibiotic resistance found in E.  faecalis contribute to its pathogenicity.  E. faecalis has been frequently   found in reinfected, root canal-treated teeth in prevalence values ranging  from 30% to 90% of the cases[1]. Re-infected root canal-treated teeth are about nine times more likely to harbor E. faecalis than cases  of primary infections. 



Description:   Enterococcus hirae is a Gram-positive, zoonotic pathogen rarely isolated from human infections.

Notes:    Enterococci are key opportunistic pathogens and have become progressivley known as a significant cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections; Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are the most commonly implicated species. E. hirae is known to cause infections in animals but is rarely remote of human clinical samples.



Description:   Feline  calicivirus (FCV) is a virus of the family Caliciviridae that causes disease in cats.  It is one of the two important viral causes of respiratory infection in cats, the other being Felid alphaherpesvirus 1.    



Description:   Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that   is infectious to cats worldwide. This virus is part of the Alphacoronavirus 1 species of the Alphacoronavirus genus belonging to   the Coronaviridae  family of viruses. Alphacoronavirus 1 also includes the canine  coronavirus (CCoV) and the porcine transmissible   gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV). It has two   different forms; the FECV (feline enteric   coronavirus) that infects the intestines and the   FIPV (feline infectious peritonitis virus) that causes the disease feline   infectious peritonitis (FIP).     



Description:   Haemophilus influenzae (formerly   called Pfeiffer’s bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic   bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. 

Notes:   The   bacterium was mistakenly considered to be the cause of influenza until 1933,   when the viral cause of influenza became apparent, and is still colloquially   known as bacterial influenza. H. influenzae is responsible for a wide range of localized and invasive  infections. 



Description:   Bacteria  recovered from the hands can be divided into two categories, namely resident   or transient. The resident flora (resident microbiota) consists of  microorganisms residing under the superficial cells of the stratum   corneum and can also be found on the surface of   the skin. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the dominant species, and oxacillin resistance is  extraordinarily high, particularly among HCWs. Other resident bacteria   include S. hominis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by coryneform bacteria (propionibacteria,  corynebacteria, dermobacteria, and micrococci).  Among fungi, the most   common genus of the resident skin flora, when present, is Pityrosporum. Resident flora has two main protective functions: microbial antagonism and the competition for   nutrients in the ecosystem. In general, resident flora is less likely to be  associated with infections, but may cause infections in sterile body   cavities, the eyes, or on non-intact skin.    

Notes:   Normal   human skin is colonized by bacteria, with total aerobic bacterial counts  ranging from more than 1 × 106 colony forming units (CFU)/cm2 on the   scalp, 5 × 105 CFUs/cm2 in the axilla, and 4 × 104 CFU/cm2 on the abdomen to 1 × 104 CFU/cm2 on the forearm. 77 Total bacterial counts on the hands of HCWs have ranged from   3.9 × 104 to 4.6 × 106 CFU/cm2. 63, 78–80 Fingertip  contamination ranged from 0 to 300 CFU when sampled by agar contact methods.72 Price   and subsequent investigators documented that although the count of transient  and resident flora varies considerably among individuals, it is often  relatively constant for any given individual    



Description:   Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the  subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human   influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as   the Spanish Flu. It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the   glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. For this reason, they are   described as H1N1, H1N2 etc. depending on the type of H or N antigens they  express with metabolic synergy. Haemagglutinin causes red blood cells to   clump together and binds the virus to the infected cell. Neuraminidase is a   type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which helps to move the virus particles  through the infected cell and assist in budding from the host cells.    

Notes:   In   June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the new strain of  swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic. This strain is often called swine flu by the   public media. This novel virus spread worldwide and had caused about 17,000   deaths by the start of 2010. On August 10, 2010, the World Health  Organization declared the H1N1 influenza pandemic over, saying worldwide flu activity had returned to typical seasonal patterns.    

Threats  According to CDC and NIH: Influenza   A virus subtype (H1N1) a.k.a. Swine influenza 



Description:   Klebsiella oxytoca is   a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is closely related   to K. pneumoniae,   from which it is distinguished by being indole-positive; it also has slightly   different growth characteristics in that it is able to grow   on melezitose, but not 3-hydroxybutyrate.      

Notes:   While   normally a pathogen associated with plants, outbreaks of  antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca have occurred in multiple hospitals and ICUs throughout   the world, and handwashing stations have been identified as a potentially  important environmental reservoir.  



 Description:    Klebsiella pneumoniae is   a Gram-negative,   non-motile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultative   anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It appears as a mucoid lactose  fermenter on MacConkey agar.    

Notes:   Although   K. pneumoniae is found in the   normal flora of the mouth, skin, and intestines, it can cause destructive   changes to human and animal lungs if aspirated, specifically to the alveoli   resulting in bloody sputum. In the clinical setting, it is the most  significant member of the Klebsiella genus of the Enterobacteriaceae.  Many K.  pneumoniae infections are obtained when a person   is in the hospital for some other reason (a nosocomial infection). Feces are the most significant source of patient infection,   followed by contact with contaminated instruments. The most common condition caused by   Klebsiella bacteria outside the hospital is pneumonia, typically in the form  of bronchopneumonia and also bronchitis. These patients have an increased   tendency to develop lung abscess, cavitation, empyema, and pleural adhesions.   It has a death rate around 50%, even with antimicrobial therapy. Certain strains of K. pneumoniae are part of a classification of bacterial called Extended  spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLs). These bacteria,  including strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, produce an enzyme that destroys many antibiotics    

Threats  According to CDC and NIH: Potential Extended spectrum   β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLs)



Description:   Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus   aureus (MRSA)  refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically   distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus   aureus. MRSA is responsible for several   difficult-to-treat infections in humans. MRSA is any strain   of S. aureus that has developed, through horizontal gene   transfer and natural selection, multiple drug   resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. β-lactam antibiotics are  a broad spectrum group which includes  some penams – penicillin derivatives such  as methicillin and oxacillin, and cephems such as  the cephalosporins. Strains unable to resist these antibiotics are   classified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, or MSSA.  

Notes:  S.   aureus is a once-routine infection that has become resistant to several  powerful antibiotics. It most often occurs as a localized skin infection, but   can become deadly if it enters the lungs or bloodstream, often through  surgery or medical equipment. It is widely present in both healthcare settings and among the general population. MRSA is common in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes, where people with open wounds, invasive devices such as   catheters, and weakened immune systems are at greater risk of   hospital-acquired infection. MRSA began as a hospital-acquired infection, but  has become community-acquired as well as livestock-acquired. The terms   HA-MRSA (healthcare-associated or hospital-acquired MRSA), CA-MRSA   (community-associated MRSA) and LA-MRSA (livestock-associated) reflect this.    

Threats  According to CDC and NIH: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 



Description:   Micrococcus luteus is   a Gram-positive, to Gram-variable, nonmotile, coccus,  tetrad-arranging, pigmented, saprotrophicbacterium that belongs to   the family Micrococcaceae. It is urease   and catalase positive. An obligate aerobe, M. luteusis found in soil, dust,   water and air, and as part of the normal flora of the mammalian skin. The   bacterium also colonizes the   human mouth, mucosae, oropharynx and upper   respiratory tract.    


Notes:   M. luteus has been shown to  survive in oligotrophic environments (environments with low   levels of nutrients) for extended  periods of time. It is considered a  contaminant in sick patients and is resistant by slowing of major metabolic processes and induction of unique genes. It is a high G + C (guanine and cytosine) ratio bacterium.  



 Description:  Murine norovirus (MNV) is a species of norovirus affecting mice. Like all  noroviruses, MNV has a linear, non-segmented, positive-sense RNA genome of  approximately 7.5 kbp, encoding a large polyprotein which is cleaved into six smaller non-structural proteins (NS1/2 to NS7) by the viral 3C-like protease   (NS6), a major structural protein (VP1) of about 58~60 kDa and a minor capsid   protein (VP2). In addition to these proteins, MNV is unique amongst the noroviruses in possessing an additional fourth open reading frame overlapping   the VP1 coding sequence. This additional reading frame encodes a virulence  factor (VF1) which regulates the innate immune response. The 3’UTR of the   viral genome forms stem-loop structures which have a role in virulence.    

Notes:   Normal   human skin is colonized by bacteria, with total aerobic bacterial counts  ranging from more than 1 × 106 colony forming units (CFU)/cm2 on the   scalp, 5 × 105 CFUs/cm2 in the axilla, and 4 × 104 CFU/cm2 on the abdomen to 1 × 104 CFU/cm2 on the forearm. 77 Total bacterial counts on the hands of HCWs have ranged from   3.9 × 104 to 4.6 × 106 CFU/cm2. 63, 78–80 Fingertip  contamination ranged from 0 to 300 CFU when sampled by agar contact methods.72 Price   and subsequent investigators documented that although the count of transient  and resident flora varies considerably among individuals, it is often  relatively constant for any given individual    



Description:      Penicillium luteum are a species of Penicillium that metabolizes luteic  acid from glucose. Penicillium ascomycetous fungi are   of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug  production.  



Description:  Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It shows swarming motility and urease activity. Most Proteus infections in humans have been identified as the P. mirabilis species. It is widely distributed in soil and water.  

Notes: This rod-shaped bacterium has the ability to produce high levels of urease, which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia (NH3), so makes the urine more alkaline. If left untreated, the increased alkalinity can lead to the formation of crystals of struvite, calcium carbonate, and/or apatite, which can result in kidney stones. The bacteria can be found throughout the stones, and these bacteria lurking in the kidney stones can reinitiate infection after antibiotic treatment. Once the stones develop, over time they may grow large enough to cause obstruction and renal failure. Proteus species can also cause wound infections, sepsis, and pneumonia, mostly in hospitalized patients.



Description:   Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common   Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and   animals, including humans. A species of considerable medical importance, P. aeruginosa is a multidrug   resistant pathogen recognized for its ubiquity,   its intrinsically advanced antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and its   association with serious illnesses – hospital-acquired infections such as   ventilator-associated pneumonia and various sepsis syndromes.      

Notes:   Pseudomonas infection is caused  by strains of bacteria found widely in the environment; the most common type causing infections in humans is   called Pseudomonas aeruginosa.This pathogen thrives in moist environments and mostly affects   hospital patients, especially those using mechanical ventilation or catheters   or with surgical or burn wounds. The Gram-negative   bacteria are exceptionally difficult to treat as they have developed   resistance to multiple classes of drugs, in addition to their broad natural   resistance.   


Threats  According to CDC and NIH:

 Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa



Description:  The rhinovirus (from the Greek ῥίς rhis  “nose”, gen ῥινός rhinos “of the nose”, and the Latin   vīrus) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the  predominant cause of the common cold. Rhinovirus infection proliferates in temperatures of 33–35 °C (91–95 °F),   the temperatures found in the nose. Rhinoviruses belong to the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae.

Notes:   There   are two modes of transmission: via aerosols of respiratory droplets and   from fomites (contaminated surfaces), including direct   person-to-person contact.      



Description:  Salmonella enterica (formerly Salmonella choleraesuis) is   a rod-shaped, flagellate, facultative   aerobic, Gram negativebacterium and a species of   the genus Salmonella.  A number of its serovars are  serious human pathogens.     

Notes:   Non-typhoidal Salmonella is a common  foodborne pathogen that causes more dangerous infection when it is resistant   to common antibiotics. It causes severe, sometimes bloody diarrhea, cramps   and fever.    

Threats  According to CDC and NIH: Drug-resistant   non-typhoidal Salmonella   



Description: Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) is a species of rod-shaped, gram-negative bacillus that is also a facultative anaerobic organism, classified as an opportunistic pathogen in the family Yersiniaceae. Serratia Marcescens occurs naturally in water and soil and creates a red pigment at room temperature. 

Notes:   S. marcescens is is often involved in hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), especially catheter-associated bacteremia, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. It is responsible for 1.4% of HAI cases in the United States.   Serratia marcescens is often found in the respiratory and urinary tracts of hospitalized adults and in the gastrointestinal systems of children. Transmission is through direct contact. Droplets of S. marcescens have been found growing on catheters, and in supposedly sterile solutions.  Most strains are resistant to many antibiotics.   Serratia Marcescens is the most common species of Serratia found in hospitals, and the only pathogenic species of Serratia, except for rare reports of diseases resulting from infection with Serratia plymuthica, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia rubidaea, and Serratia odorifera. 



Description:  Staphylococcus aureus is a  Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a usual member of the microbiota of the body, frequently found in the   upper respiratory tract and on the skin.

Notes:   Staphylococcus aureus (staph), is a type of germ that roughly 30% of people carry in their noses Much of the time, staph does not cause any harm, yet staph can cause infections. In healthcare settings, staph infections can be serious and even fatal. Any S. aureus has the potential to become MRSA.    



Description:   Staphylococcus epidermidis is  a Gram-positive bacterium, and one of over 40 species belonging to   the genus Staphylococcus. It is part of the normal human   flora, typically the skin flora, and less commonly the mucosal   flora. It is a facultative anaerobic bacteria.    


Notes:    Although S. epidermidis is not usually  pathogenic, patients with compromised immune systems are at risk of  developing infection. These infections are generally hospital-acquired. S. epidermidis is a   particular concern for people with catheters or other surgical   implants because it is known to form biofilms that grow on these   devices. Being part of the normal skin flora, S. epidermidis is a frequent   contaminant of specimens sent to the diagnostic laboratory.    




Description:  Staphylococcus haemolyticus is   a member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). It is part   of the skin floraof humans, and its largest populations are usually   found at the axillae, perineum, and inguinal areas.      

 Notes:  S. haemolyticusalso  colonizes primates and domestic animals. It is a   well-known opportunistic pathogen, and is the second-most frequently   isolated CoNS (S. epidermidis is the first). Infections can be localized or   systemic, and are often associated with the insertion of medical   devices. The highly antibiotic-resistant phenotype and   ability to form biofilms make S.   haemolyticus a   difficult pathogen to treat. Optimal growth occurs between 30 and   40 °C in the presence of oxygen and 10% NaCl. However,   some strains can grow at temperatures that range between 18 and 45 °C.   Growth at 15 °C or 15% NaCl is poor or absent.    



Description:    Staphylococcus hominis is   a coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus, consisting   of Gram-positive, spherical cells in clusters. It occurs very commonly   as a harmless commensal on human and animal skin and is known for   producing thioalcohol compounds that contribute to body  odour. Like many other coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. hominis may occasionally  cause infection in patients whose immune systems are compromised,   for example by chemotherapy or predisposing illness.      

Notes:   Most   strains of S. hominis colonize  on the skin for relatively short periods of time compared to other   Staphylococcus species. They, on average, stay on the skin for only several   weeks or months. The cell wall contains low amounts of teichoic acid and   glutamic acid. Multi drug resistant strains of s. hominis have been isolated   from blood and wound cultures in humans.    



Description:     Staphylococcus saprophyticus is   a Gram-positive coccus belonging to the coagulase-negative   genus Staphylococcus. S. saprophyticus is a common   cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections.    

Notes:  In humans, S. saprophyticus is found in the normal flora of the female genital   tract and perineum. It has been isolated from other sources, too, including meat and cheese products,   vegetables, the environment,  and human and animalgastrointestinal tracts. S. saprophyticus causes 10–20%   of urinary tract infections (UTIs). In females 17–27 years old, it  is the second-most common cause of community-acquired UTIs, after Escherichia coli. Sexual   activity increases the risk of S.  saprophyticus UTIs because bacteria are  displaced from the normal flora of the vagina and perineum into the urethra. Most cases occur within 24 hours of sex, earning   this infection the nickname “honeymoon cystitis”. S. saprophyticus has the   capacity to selectively adhere to human urothelium.      



Description:    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a Gram-positive nonmotile coccus that grows into grape-like clusters  in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.  S.epidermidis is a common member of the normal florae of skin and mucous membranes. Its large numbers and ubiquitous distribution make it one of the most commonly isolated organisms in the clinical laboratory setting. It is now one of the most important agents of hospital acquired infections (HAIs). 

Notes:   Immunosuppressed or neutropenic patients are particularly at risk to Staphylococcus epidermidis, as are individuals with catheters or prosthetic devices. S. epidermidis (strain ATCC 12228) is unable to form biofilms. 



Description:  Streptococcus  pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic or   beta-hemolytic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus. They   are usually found in pairs and do not form spores and are nonmotile.

Notes:  S. pneumoniae can cause   pneumonia; ear, sinus and bloodstream infections; and meningitis. Some   strains are resistant to multiple drugs, which can be especially dangerous to   young children, the elderly and HIV patients. It is spread person-to-person,  often in childcare and healthcare facilities.       

Threats  According to CDC and NIH: Drug-resistant   Streptococcus pneumoniae



Description:    Streptococcus pyogenes is   a species of Gram-positive bacterium in the  genus Streptococcus.   These bacteria are aerotolerant and an extracellular bacterium, made up of  non-motile and non-sporing cocci. It is clinically important for humans. It   is an infrequent, but usually pathogenic, part of the skin   microbiota. It is the predominant   species harboring the Lancefield group A antigen, and is often called group A streptococcus (GAS). However, both Streptococcus   dysgalactiae and the Streptococcus   anginosus group can possess group A antigen. Group   A streptococci when  grown on blood agar typically produces small zones of beta-hemolysis, a   complete destruction of red blood cells. (A zone size of 2–3 mm is typical.)   It is thus also called group A (beta-hemolytic) streptococcus (GABHS), and can make colonies greater than 5 mm in size.    

Notes:   An   estimated 700 million GAS infections occur worldwide each year. While the  overall mortality rate for these infections is 0.1%, over 650,000 of the   cases are severe and invasive, and have a mortality rate of 25%. Early  recognition and treatment are critical; diagnostic failure can   result in sepsis and death.



Description:  Enterococcus faecalis – formerly  classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system – is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting   the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals.

Notes:   Enterococci normally live in   human intestines and the female genital tract without issue, but they can   lead to serious infection when they spread through urinary or intravenous   catheters, or enter the bloodstream. Some strains have developed resistance   to vancomycin, one of the most powerful antibiotics available.  

Threats  According to CDC and NIH: Vancomycin-resistant  Enterococcus (VRE) 


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